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My own Videos

December 22, 2018

These are some of my own videos! Please watch them and also visit my channel at:

Automatic Plant Watering system

This is a project based on an automatic plant watering system which waters the plant on the basis of temperature and humidity. Materials required- Arduino uno Temperature and Humidity sensor DS3231 rtc module Relay Barrel Jack Barrel jack 12v adapter 3v-9v pump Jumper wires Libraries- ds3231- DHT sensor - Code link-

Automatic Pet feeder using Arduino

This is a project on an automatic pet feeder. The materials used are- Arduino Uno, Servo motor and DS3231 rtc module. It feeds the pet according to the time.

Obstacle avoiding robot with Ev3

Today I have made an obstacle avoiding not using Lego mindstorms EV3. It can also avoid any walls or obstacles that come in it's way.

World Robot Olympiad 2018

Fr. Agnel School- Noida team participation in the WRO 2018. We built a Robot using Lego EV3, with an objective to reduce food waste.

DIY toy car

This is a racing toy car that I have made using parts from mechanics, motors and wheels, a switch and batteries.

EV3 war-robot 1

This is a robot made by lego mindstorms ev3. it is actually a war robot.

Introduction to the Rasperry pi 3

The raspberry pi is a very compact and cheap computer. It can be used for various experiments. It uses a version of linux for it's operating software, Raspbian. The Raspberry pi is convenient to use and can be programmed by many different ways like Wolfram, Python and Scratch.

Introduction to LEGO Mindstorm EV3

Basic information about LEGO mindstorm EV3

Ev3 Line follower using 1 sensor

This is a PID line follower using one sensor of the lego mindstorms ev3 kit.

Introduction to Arduino Uno

Introduction to Arduino Uno platform explaining its components. It's an open source electronic prototyping platform enabling users to create interactive electronic objects.


Astronomy facts

August 6, 2018



1-Saturn would float if you would put it in water.
2-If you would place a pinhead sized piece of the Sun on the Earth you would die from standing within 145 km (90 miles) from it.
3-Space is not a complete vacuum, there are about 3 atoms per cubic meter of space.
4-Only 5% of the universe is made up of normal matter, 25% is dark matter and 70% is dark energy.
5-Neutron stars are so dense that a teaspoon of them would be equal to the weight of the entire Earth’s population.
6-The Sun is 400 times larger than the Moon but is 400 times further away from Earth making them appear the same size.
7-The star Lucy in the constellation Centaurus is a huge cosmic diamond of 10 billion trillion trillion carats.
8-Seasons last 21 years on Uranus while each pole has 42 years of sunlight followed by 42 years of darkness.
9-Venus,on the other hand, does not have any seasons at all.
10-1 year on Mercury consists of less than 2 days on Mercury.
11-There are as many oxygen atoms in a breath as breaths of air in the atmosphere.
12-Helium is the only substance in the universe that cannot be in solid form.It can’t be cold enough.
13-The coldest place in the universe is on Earth. In Wolfgang Ketterles lab in Massachusetts. 0.000000000001 degrees Kelvin.
14-The pistol star is the most luminous star known 10 million times the brightness of the Sun.
15-Saturn’s moon Titan has liquid oceans of natural gas.
16-All the planets are the same age: 4.544 billion years.
17-Earths moon was most likely formed after an early planet named Theia crashed into Earth.
18-8000 stars are visible with naked eye from Earth. 4000 in each hemisphere, 2000 at daylight and 2000 at night.
19-90-99% of all normal matter in the universe is hydrogen.
20-Only 55% of all Americans knows that the Sun is a star.
21-Because of the speed the Sun moves at, solar eclipses can last at most 7 minutes and 58 seconds.
22-Lunar eclipses, however, can last 1 hour and 40 minutes.
23-All the coal, oil, gas, wood and fuel on Earth would only keep the Sun burning for few days.
24-A full moon is nine times brighter than a half moon.
25-When the Moon is directly above your head or if you stand at the equator, you weight slightly less.
26-A single Quasar produce the same amount of energy as 1 trillion suns.
27-Just after the Big Bang, everything in the universe was in liquid form.
28-A planet nicknamed “The Genesis Planet” has been found to be 12.7 billion years old making it the oldest planet found.
29-The shape of the universe looks a lot like a brain cell.
30-Every year, the Moon is moving away from Earth by 3.8 centimeters.
31-The Moon spins around its axis in the same time it goes one lap around the Earth which makes us always see the same side of it.
32-Upsilon Andromeda B also only face one side to its star. One side is hot as lava while the other one is cold below freezing.
33-The average galaxy contains “only” 40 billion stars.
34-While in space astronomers can get taller, but at the same time their hearts can get smaller.
35-Mars surface is cowered with iron oxide (rust).
36-Only half a billionth of the energy released by the Sun reaches Earth.
37-Rogue planets are not bound by any star, brown dwarf or another planet which makes them free-float around the galaxy.
38-Sweeps 10 is the planet with the shortest orbital period found. It orbits its star in only 10 hours.
39-85% of all stars in our galaxy are part of multiple-star systems.
40-Some brown dwarfs have liquid iron rain falling down on them.
41-The light emitting from the Sun is actually 30.000 years old.
42-Of the over 20 million meteors that are observable every day only one or two reach the surface of Earth.
43-The United States have approximately 3.500 astronomers, but over 15.000 astrologers.
44-The closest black hole to Earth is only 1.600 light-years away.
45-There are at least 10^24 stars in the universe.
46-Certain “star quakes” have been found to tear apart the surface of neutron stars.
47-Any free-moving liquid in outer space will form itself into a sphere due to surface tension.
48-The odds of being killed by falling space debris is 1 in 5 billion.
49-Neutron stars can rotate up to 500 times in 1 second.
50-The largest structure found in the universe is the Sloan Great Wall, a super cluster of galaxies 1.37 billion light-years wide.

1. Planets have magnetic field around them because of the liquid iron in their cores. As the planets rotate, so the iron swirls, generating electric currents that create the magnetic field

52. Earth’s atmosphere is the only atmosphere discovered till date that human can breathe in.

53. Earth’s atmosphere was formed from gases pouring out from volcanoes.

54. Jupiter has no surface for a spacecraft to land on because it is made mostly from helium gas and hydrogen. The massive pull of Jupiter’s gravity squeezes the hydrogen so hard that it is liquid.

55. Jupiter spins right round in less than 10 hours which means that the planet’s surface is moving at nearly 50,000 km/hr.

56. The first successful planetary space probe was the USA’s Mariner 2, which flew past Venus in 1962.

57. Voyager 2 has flown over 6 billion km and is heading out of the solar system after passing close to Neptune in 1989.

58. To save fuel on journeys to distant planets, space probes may use a nearby planet’s gravity to catapult them on their way. This is called slingshot.

59. Hubble’s law showed that Universe is getting bigger – and so must have started very small. This led to the idea of Big Bang.

60. It’s believed that it was the impact of a big meteorite may have chilled the earth and wiped out all the dinosaurs.

61. The first astronomers thought the regular pulses from far space might be signals from aliens, and pulsars were jokingly called LGMs (short for Little Green Men).

62. Pulsars probably result from a supernova explosion – that is why most are found in the flat disc of the Milky Way, where supernovae occur.

63. Three moons have yet been found to have their own moons: Saturn’s moon Titan, Jupiter’s Lo, and Neptune’s Triton.

64. The largest moon in the Solar System is the Jupiter’s moon Ganymede.

65. Saturn is not solid, but is made almost entirely of gas – mostly liquid hydrogen and helium. Only in the planet’s very small core is there any rock.

66. Winds ten times stronger than a hurricane on Earth swirl around Saturn’s equator reaching up to 1100 km/h – and they never let up: even for a moment.

67. The first space station was the Soviet Salyut 1 launched in April 1971; its low orbit meant it stayed up only five months.

68. In April 2001, Dennis Tito became the first space tourist, ferried up to the ISS by the Russian Soyuz space shuttle.

69. Einstein’s theory of general relativity shows that gravity not only pulls on matter, but also space and even ‘Time’ itself.

70. Since the star Deneb is 1800 light years away, we see it as it was when the emperor Septimus Severius was ruling the Rome (AD 200).

71. With powerful telescopes, astronomers can see galaxies 2 billion light years away. This means we see them as they were when the only life forms in Earth were bacteria.

72. The slowest rotating planet is Venus, which takes 243.01 days to turn around.

73. The fastest spinning objects in the Universe are neutron stars – these can rotate 500 times in just 1 second.

74. In summer in Uranus, the sun does not set for 20 years. In winter, darkness lasts for 20 years. In autumn, the sun rises and sets every 9 hours.

75. Uranus’s moon Miranda is the weirdest moon of all. It seems to have been blasted apart, and then put together again

76. Solar flares reach temperatures of 10 million °C and have the energy of a million atom bombs.

77. True binary stars are two stars held together by one another’s gravity, which spend their lives whirling around together like a pair of dancers.


78. Halley predicted that a comet he had discovered would return in 1758, 16 years after his death, and it really did. It was the first time a comet’s arrival had been predicted, and the comet was named after him as Halley’s Comet.

79. Ceres is the biggest asteroid in the Solar System – 940 km across, and 0.0002% the size of the earth.

80. The sun is about 5 billion years old and half a way through its life – as a medium sized star it will probably live for around 10 billion years.

81. Neptune’s mood Triton is the coldest place in the Solar System, with surface temperatures of -236°C.

82. Voyager 2 will beam back data until 2020 as it travels beyond the edges of the Solar System.

83. The Pioneer 10 and 11 probes carry metal plaques with messages for aliens telling them about us.

84. Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity (1905) shows that all measurements are relative, including time and speed. In other words, time and speed depends upon where you measure them.

85. When things are falling, their acceleration cancels out gravity, which is why astronauts in orbits are weightless.

86. The first space telescope was the Copernicus, sent out in 1972.

87. Astronauts learn Scuba diving which helps them to deal with space walks.

88. Weightlessness makes astronauts grow several centimeters during a long mission.

89. The first living creature in space was the dog Laika on – board Sputnik 2 in 1957. Sadly, she died when the spacecraft’s oxygen supply ran out.

90. The first manned space flight was made in April 1961 by the Soviet Cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1.

91. The heart of a star reaches 16 million °C. A grain of sand this hot would kill someone 150 km away.

92. Stars twinkle because we see them through the wafting of the atmosphere.

93. The sun weighs 2,000 trillion trillion tones – about 300,000 times as much as the Earth – even though it is made almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, the lightest gases in the Universe.

94. The sun gets hot because it is so big that the pressure in its core is so tremendous – enough to force the nuclei of hydrogen atoms to fuse to make helium atoms. This nuclear reaction is like a gigantic atom bomb and it releases huge amounts of heat.

95. The nuclear fusion reactions in the Sun’s core send out billions of light photons every minute but they take 10 million years to reach its surface.

96. The Hiroshima bombs released 84 trillion joules of energy. A supernova releases 125,000 trillion trillion times as such.

97. The most distant galaxies (quasars) have red shifts so big that they must be moving away from us at speeds approaching the speed of light.

98. When light waves from distant galaxies are stretched out his way, they look redder. This is called red shift.

99. The moon’s gravity is 17% of the Earth’s so astronauts in space suits can jump 4 m high on the moon.

100. The moon is the only other world that humans have set foot on. Because the moon has no atmosphere or wind, the footprints planted in its dusty surface in 1969 by the Apollo astronauts are still there today, perfectly preserved.

101. On the moon’s surface are large dark patches called seas – because this is what people once believed they were. They are, in fact, lava flows from ancient volcanoes.

102. Quasars are the most distant known objects in the Universe. Even the nearest is billions of light years away.

103. The brightest quasar is 3C 273, 2 billion light years away.

104. The brightest stars in the night sky are not actually stars, but the planets Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Mercury.

105. Jupiter’s moon Europa may have oceans of water beneath its dry surface and it is a major target in the search for life in the Solar System.

106. There may be 20 trillion galaxies in the Universe.

107. Galaxies are often found in a group or clusters. One cluster may have 30 or so galaxies in it.

108. In the 1970s the US Vikings 1 and 2 and the Soviet Mars 3 and 5 probes all reached the surface of Mars.

109.  The Solar System has nine planets including Pluto, but Pluto may be an escaped moon or an asteroid not a planet.

110. The Milky Way belongs to a cluster of 30 galaxies called the Local Group, which is 7 million light years across.

111. The Virgo Cluster is 50 million light years away and is made up of 1000 galaxies.

112. For a satellite or a spacecraft to stay in orbit 200 km above the earth, it has to fly over 8 km/sec.

113. When a spacecraft reaches 140% of the orbital velocity i.e. 11.2 km/sec, it is going fast enough to break free of the Earth’s gravity. This is called escape velocity


Very interesting facts from Astronomers & Scientists.. I still could not get it about fact number 18 ? Half of the stars are visible at daylight with naked eye from Earth? Could anyone explain!